Vitamin K

Vitamin K | Absolutely Everything You Need to Know

When it comes to vitamins, vitamin K is one of the most important. This vitamin is responsible for a variety of essential bodily functions, including blood clotting and bone health. In this article, we will discuss the benefits of vitamin K, as well as common deficiencies and dietary recommendations. We will also explore some of the best food sources of vitamin K.

What is vitamin K?

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin available in 2 types. The principal type is named phylloquinones, and is found in green leafy vegetables like collards, kale and spinach. Menoquinones have also been used in animal feeds, as well as fermented food products.

Menaquinones have been known to be created through bacteria. Vitamin K can help produce several types of protein (vitamin k dependent protein) which are required when blood clotting occurs and bones can build up.

Prothrombin acts on the cellular surface of the liver as a direct inhibitor for blood clots. Osteocalcin is another protein required for the production of healthy bones. Vitamin K is present in all the tissues and organs in our bodies.

Types of vitamin K

Vitamin K1: Vitamin K1 (phytonadione) is a fat-soluble vitamin found in leafy green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and some fruits. It is also available as a supplement. Vitamin K1 is important for blood clotting and helps maintain bone health.

Vitamin K2: Is a fat-soluble vitamin that comes from bacteria and helps regulate calcium. Vitamin K2 may have some role in preventing bone loss, but more research is needed to determine whether it affects the risk of fractures. K1 and K2 are both forms of vitamin K.
K2 though has some variations where two of them are the most important:

  • Menaquinone-4 (MK-4): Menaquinone-4 (MK-4) is a vitamin K2 form that is found in animal products, such as cheese, eggs, and meat. It is also available as a supplement. MK-4 helps regulate calcium and has been shown to promote bone health.
  • Menaquinone-7 (MK-7): Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) is a vitamin K2 form that is found in fermented foods, such as natto, cheese, and sauerkraut. MK-7 helps regulate calcium and has been shown to promote bone health. Some studies suggest that MK-7 may also help protect against heart disease.

Vitamin K3 (menadione) is a synthetic form of vitamin K that is used as a supplement. It is important for blood clotting and helps maintain bone health.

Foods with vitamin K

There are several good sources of vitamin K. The best sources of vitamin K1 are leafy green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and some fruits. Other good sources of vitamin K1 include dairy foods, eggs, and some herbs. The best sources of vitamin K2 are fermented foods, such as natto, cheese, and sauerkraut. Other good sources of vitamin K2 include meat, eggs, and dairy products. Synthetic forms of vitamin K3 are also available as supplements.

(mcg) per
collard greensCollard greens boiled530 mcg
spinach boiledSpinach boiled445 mcg
turnip greensTurnip greens boiled425 mcg
SpinachSpinach raw145 mcg
Brussels sproutsBrussels sprouts boiled110 mcg
kaleKale raw82 mcg
broccoliBroccoli boiled81 mcg
AsparangusAsparagus boiled48 mcg
kiwiKiwifruit peeled36 mcg
Chinese cabbageChinese cabbage cooked29 mcg
Blueberries frozen, 21mcg
Carrots raw, chopped, 17mcg
Hazelnuts chopped, 16 mcg
Grapes, 11mcg
Tomato products, 9.2 mcg
Olive oil, 1.0 tablespoon 8.1mcg
Zucchini boiled, 7.6 mcg
Mangos pieces, 6.9 mcg
Pears, pieces, 6.2 mcg
Potato baked with skin, 6.0 mcg
Sweet potato baked, 2.6 mcg
Bread whole wheat, 2.5 mcg
Bread white, 2.2 mcg
Chicken, 2.7–3.3 mcg
Mollusks, 2.2 mcg
Cheese diced, 1.4–1.7 mcg
Beef, 0.9 mcg
Pork sausage, 0.9 mcg
Yogurt milk, 0.4mcg
Milk whole, 0.2 mcg
Fish, 0.1 mcg
Eggs, 0.1 mcg
Human milk, 9.2 mcg

There is no one-size-fits-all answer to this question, as the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for vitamin K intake can vary depending on age, gender and pregnancy status. However, general guidelines suggest that men should aim for 120 micrograms per day, women should aim for 90 micrograms per day, children should aim for 60-70 micrograms per day and pregnant women should aim for 80-90 micrograms per day.


Life stage groupRDAs or AIs (mcg RAE/day)Upper limits (mcg/day)
<19 years75 mcg800 mcg
>19 years90 mcg800 mcg


Life stage groupRDAs or AIs (mcgRAE/day)Upper limits (mcg/day)
0–6 months2 mcgNot established
7–12 months2.5 mcgNot established


Life stage groupRDAs or AIs (mg RAE/day)Upper limits (mcg/day)
1–3 years30 mcg200 mcg
4–8 years55 mcg300 mcg


Life stage groupRDAs or AIs (mcg RAE/day)Upper limits (mcg/day)
9–13 years60 mcg600 mcg
14–18 years75 mcg800 mcg
>19 years90 mcg800 mcg


Life stage groupUS RDAs or AIs (mcg RAE/day)Upper limits (mcg/day)
9–13 years60 mcg600 mcg
14–18 years75 mcg800 mcg
>19 years120 mcg800 mcg

Vitamin K benefits

Vitamin K refers to a set of fat-soluble vitamins involved in the regulation of blood coagulation and bone metabolism. The body needs vitamin K to produce prothrombin — a protein and clotting element that is vital to blood clotting and muscle metabolism. Vitamin K benefits include regulating blood coagulation, maintaining healthy bones, supporting brain function and reducing risk of cancer.

Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting and bone health

Vitamin K plays an important role in blood clotting and bone health. It is available in two types, phylloquinones and menoquinones, and is present in all tissues and organs in the body. The body needs vitamin K to produce prothrombin — a protein and clotting element that is vital in blood clotting and muscle metabolism.

People taking clotting drugs like warfarin or Coumadin can only consume vitamin K after their dilated blood pressure drops below their blood level. In severe cases, this may lead to clots from trusted sources causing bleeding which causes hemorrhage and excessive bleeding.

Helps to fight cancer

Vitamin K foods like leafy greens are jam-packed with cancer-fighting antioxidants, which help prevent damage from free radicals and decrease the risk for many types of cancers. Furthermore, research has shown that a higher intake of vitamin k2 was associated with a reduced odds ratio when compared to those who did not consume enough or any at all!

Vitamin K1 and VitaminK2 have been shown to kill off cancer cells, reduce the risk of developing some types of cancers altogether. In one study 440 women postmenopausal with weak bones were given supplements containing vitamin k for two years. This led them to 75% reduction in incidence rates for all kinds examined.

Strengthens bones

Vitamin K also promotes bone health by encouraging the process of bone mineralization. This means that it helps keep our bones strong and dense. Vitamin K deficiency has even been linked to osteoporosis, which is a condition where bones become brittle and fragile due to loss of mass. Although vitamin K cannot help rebuild bones that have already been damaged, it can reduce the risk of osteoporosis in healthy people.

There are many studies that, have found that increasing your intake of this important vitamin can help reduce the risk for bone fractures. A study showed how supplementing with Vitamin K1 cut half off those risks associated with having low levels versus eating plenty on a regular basis.

Another study shows that a low intake of vitamin K foods was associated with reduced bone mineral density in female osteoporosis patients suffering from this issue. For these reasons, many women are looking into supplementation as an option for them to ensure they’re meeting their needs; however, there may also be natural treatments available like weight training 3 times per week or getting daily sun exposure while eating plenty omega 3 fatty acids upon blades menu choices.

Improves Brain Function

The nutrient vitamin K is known to play an important role in brain function. In fact, a lack of vitamin K has been linked to cognitive decline. This is because vitamin K is essential for the production of sphingolipids, which are molecules that are important for neuron communication. Additionally, vitamin K is also involved in the regulation of calcium levels in the brain, which is important for maintaining normal brain function.

Vitamin K is a powerful antioxidant that helps protect your brain against oxidative stress. This protects your cells and may prevent the development of conditions like Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s in both humans AND animals!

Helps Heart Health

Heart health is one of the most important aspects of our overall health, and luckily, vitamin K can help promote it. Vitamin K is most well-known for its role in blood clotting, but it also plays a crucial role in maintaining heart health. It helps keep our arteries healthy and flexible, which reduces the risk of heart disease.

It can also help prevent calcification of the arteries, which is a major risk factor for heart disease. In addition, vitamin K can help improve arterial function and protect against atherosclerosis. All of these benefits make vitamin K a key player in promoting heart health.

Helps Insulin Sensitivity

Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas. It is released in response to high levels of glucose in the blood and helps to move the glucose from the blood into the cells, where it can be used for energy. Insulin sensitivity refers to how responsive the cells are to insulin. If the cells are not very sensitive to insulin, then they require more insulin to move the same amount of glucose. This can lead to problems like insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

Vitamin K has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity. A recent study showed supplementation helped reduce the progression of type 2 diabetes among older men.

Physical activity, along with a healthy diet low in carbohydrates, high in proteins and fiber-rich foods, can help to stabilize blood sugar levels and prevent insulin resistance.

Vitamin K deficiency

A vitamin K deficiency can lead to serious health problems such as uncontrolled bleeding. This is because vitamin K is essential for the proper formation of clots. A deficiency can develop due to inadequate intake from food, poor absorption, or excessive loss. Symptoms of a vitamin K deficiency include easy bruising, heavy menstrual bleeding, and nosebleeds.

Vitamin K deficiency causes

A vitamin K deficiency can be caused by a variety of things, including:

  • Not getting enough vitamin K in your diet
  • Taking certain medications, such as blood thinners and antibiotics,
  • Having a condition that affects how your body absorbs nutrients, such as Crohn’s disease or celiac disease

Diagnosing vitamin K deficiency

A vitamin K deficiency can be diagnosed by a blood test. The blood test will look at the levels of vitamin K in the blood. If the levels are below the normal range, then a vitamin K deficiency is present.

The coagulation test and prothrombin time tests help to diagnose vitamin k deficiency. These two blood tests will check the blood’s ability to clot, which is one of the early indicators of vitamin k deficiency.

Vitamin K dietary supplements

The best way to get your daily dose of vitamin K is through food. Leafy green vegetables, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and asparagus are all great sources of vitamin K. If you’re not a fan of these foods, or if they don’t make up a big part of your diet, you can also take a vitamin K supplement.

The highest dosage of vitamin K you can get from supplements is 1,000 mcg. If you take vitamin k supplementation, make sure to spread your dosage throughout the day. For instance, if you take 1,000 mcg at bedtime, try taking 500 mcg in the morning and another 500 mcg before going to sleep.

Supplementing with vitamin K can be helpful for people who don’t eat enough vegetables. Taking vitamin K supplementation may help protect against osteoporosis and heart disease as well as ward off cancer and strengthen bones and teeth.

It’s important to consult with your doctor before taking vitamin K supplements. The Mayo Clinic warns that high doses (more than 500 mcg) of vitamin K can interfere with the effectiveness of some anticoagulant medications like Coumadin. Vitamin K supplementation may also interact with antibiotics and other blood-thinning medications such as warfarin (Coumadin) or clopidogrel (Plavix).

Health Risks from Excessive Vitamin K

Excessive Vitamin K has a low risk to human health. It also said there were no negative effects associated with dietary supplementation of vitamin K in human beings or animals.

Final Thoughts

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that has many important functions in the body. It helps with blood clotting, calcium absorption and preventing osteoporosis. Vitamin K deficiencies are rare but can occur if someone is not getting enough from their diet.

Foods high in vitamin K include leafy green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, dairy products and certain meats. There are also several dietary supplements available that contain vitamin K. Getting enough vitamin K is important for overall health, especially for those at risk for heart disease or fractures.


Vitamin K helps in making specialized proteins necessary for blood circulation and building a body. Prothrombin has been shown to help reduce blood clots by acting as vitamin K-dependent proteins. Osteocalcin is another protein that needs vitamin K in its production of strong bones.

No, potassium is not a vitamin K. Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin and is found in green leafy vegetables, dairy products, meat, fish, and eggs.

In contrast to vitamin K, potassium is not a dietary vitamin. This is just a mineral. The chemical symbol of potassium in periodic tables is the word K. Therefore, some people may confuse potassium with vitamin K.

Anemia, fatigue and other symptoms of vitamin deficiency may be early warning signs of a vitamin K deficiency. Also, if you have been bleeding a lot from just a little cut and you can’t stop coughing up blood, are some of the symptoms of low vitamin K, including shortness of breath, abdominal pain, coughing up blood, or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.

If you or someone you know is experiencing these symptoms it’s important to see a doctor as soon as possible for diagnosis and treatment options. It’s crucial not to leave this situation unattended.

Vitamin K is essential for maintaining health. It is vital to the circulation of blood and the health of bones and serves several purposes in our bodies.

In early research, vitamin K2 has been linked to a reduced risk of coronary artery calcification in people with low vitamin K intake from food when followed for a period of three years.

  • The potential role of vitamin K in the prevention and progression of arterial stiffness is also being studied.
  • In one study, injection into an artery that provides blood flow to the intestines with a 70% reduction in arterial stiffness was observed after only 15 days.
  • Vitamin k may be an adjunctive treatment for stroke, if given within 12 hours of symptom onset or before invasive brain surgery—to help reduce hemorrhage risks.
  • It has already proven effective for high blood pressure and can potentially benefit surgical patients by reducing excessive

Among foods rich in vitamin k the green leaf-colored vegetables include kale, collards, broccoli spinach, cabbage and lettuce. Other foods with potential adverse health effects include chicken liver or other animal liver products.

While eggs do contain some vitamin K (0.1mg), the amount may not be enough to significantly contribute to your daily intake. However, other foods that are high in vitamin K include leafy green vegetables and cruciferous vegetables like broccoli and cauliflower. So if you’re looking to increase your vitamin K intake, focus on incorporating more of these types of foods into your diet.

There is some evidence that suggests that high doses of vitamin K can increase the risk of blood clots. However, it is important to note that this has only been observed in a limited number of cases, and further research is needed to confirm these findings. Nevertheless, it is generally recommended that people who are taking vitamin K supplements stick to the recommended dosage.

While vitamin K is an important nutrient that helps to maintain healthy blood clotting, it’s possible to have too much of it. If you’re taking warfarin (you are on warfarin therapy) or another blood thinner, it’s important to speak with your doctor to make sure you’re not consuming too much vitamin K, as this could lead to dangerous blood clots.

Yes, avocado is high in vitamin K. In fact, one cup of avocado provides nearly 25% of your recommended daily intake of vitamin K but it varies from avocado to avocado. Vitamin K in guacamole may vary also.

Yes, vitamin K is safe to take daily. In fact, it’s necessary for human health. Vitamin K is important for many functions in the body, including blood clotting and bone health.

You must get enough vitamin K in a balanced diet. When taking vitamin C supplement, don’t take more than needed because it can be harmful. Vitamin K supplements have no adverse effects.

The toxic dose for vitamins is unknown. Nevertheless, vitamin K3 is a vitamin that is highly toxic for humans.

Vitamin K can interact with certain medications. For example, it can decrease the effectiveness of warfarin, a medication used to prevent blood clots. If you’re taking warfarin, be sure to talk to your doctor before taking any vitamin K supplements.

The vitamin K oxidation-reduction cycle is a process that helps to maintain the health of bones and blood vessels. This process is responsible for converting vitamin K1 into vitamin K2, which is a more active form of the vitamin. Vitamin K2 is important for maintaining bone health, and it may also help to reduce the risk of heart disease.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a condition in which the kidneys fail to work properly over a period of months or years. The main function of the kidneys is to remove waste products and excess fluid from the body. When the kidneys stop working, dangerous levels of waste products can build up and cause serious health problems.

There is growing evidence that vitamin K plays an important role in protecting the kidneys from damage. A recent study published in the journal Clinical Nutrition found that people with CKD who had high levels of vitamin K were less likely to develop kidney failure.

Yes, there are drugs that interfere with vitamin K absorption. Drugs like anticoagulants and antibiotics can interfere with the absorption of vitamin K.

By NutriWins team

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